Clinical Conversation: Footwork Options for Pregnancy (March 2022)

This transcript includes highlights from the live, interactive session of our Clinical Conversation: Footwork Options for Pregnancy.

If you missed the live webinar, you can read about some of the biomechanical changes during pregnancy, as well as footwork options for your clinical Pilates practice below. 

Please join our next live event, where you can participate in our Case Study discussion and Q&A session. 

Check out our upcoming Clinical Conversations here



  •  Pilates sessions traditionally begin with footwork and other strength work to set a foundation for movement.
  • By spending time building strength through the feet, you can help to support a stable and dynamic support for standing, and for upright movement.
  • This is an incredibly functional place to begin, and it's no different when working with a pregnant body.



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Clinical Pilates in Practice: Toe Flexor Strength & Mobility (March 2022)

This study sought elucidate the influence that foot posture has on the relationship between toe flexor strength and functional performance in older adults. The authors recognise the study's limitations: the study cohort was limited to women, and did not measure body kinematics or muscle activity.


Kusagawa, Y., Kurihara, T., Imai, A., Maeo, S., Sugiyama, T., Kanehisa, H., & Isaka, T. (2020). Toe flexor strength is associated with mobility in older adults with pronated and supinated feet but not with neutral feet. Journal of foot and ankle research13(1), 55.



  • Both pronated and supinated foot postures influence rearfoot frontal plane motion, plantar pressure distribution, and muscle activity in the lower limb during gait.
  • Individuals with pronated feet require increased intrinsic muscle activity to stabilize the...
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Clinical Conversation: Axial Elongation (February 2022)

 This transcript includes highlights from the live, interactive session of our Clinical Conversation: Axial Elongation. 

If you missed the live webinar, you can read about how to use axial elongation in your clinical Pilates practice below. 

Please join our next live event, where you can participate in our Case Study discussion and Q&A session. 

Check out our upcoming Clinical Conversations here



  • Many Pilates courses extol the virtues of axial elongation, and teach this principle as an elongation of the spine: creating space between the vertebrae.
    • Axial elongation opens space between the joints, and thus creates space for movement.
    • This space between the joints helps to decompress joints and rebalance the soft tissues around those joints. 
  • Axial elongation can also be used along the axes of the long bones, or between any other joints in the body.
    • Wherever there is an...
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Clinical Pilates in Practice: Prediction of Motor Learning (February 2022)

The authors of this paper used an ethological approach to test the hypothesis that practice-related refinements of multiple behavioural features would be independently predictive of motor learning.


Perry, Christopher M., Tarkeshwar Singh, Kayla G. Springer, Adam T. Harrison, Alexander C. McLain, and Troy M. Herter. "Multiple processes independently predict motor learning." Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation 17, no. 1 (2020). doi:10.1186/s12984-020-00766-3.



  • Motor learning results from neural adaptations that produce refinements of behavioural features of motor tasks.
  • Motor learning can induce changes in visual processing that are associated with the refinements of skilled limb movement.
  • The interactions between skilled limb movements and visual search lead to coordinated patterns of the eyes and limbs (ie., hand-eye coordination).
  • Experts with different visuomotor...
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Clinical Pilates in Practice: Hip-Spine Syndrome (January 2022)


This narrative review explains the mechanism by which abnormal hip pathologies contribute to low back pain in patients without hip osteoarthritis.


Anthony N Khoury, Munif Hatem, Joshua Bowler, Hal David Martin, Hip–spine syndrome: rationale for ischiofemoral impingement, femoroacetabular impingement and abnormal femoral torsion leading to low back pain, Journal of Hip Preservation Surgery, hnaa054.



  • Hip abnormalities limiting hip flexion and/or extension require compensation from the pelvis and lumbar spine for the lack of sagittal movement at the hip.
  • Between 13.1% and 37.5% of the total hip flexion is provided by the pelvis through sagittal movement at the lumbopelvic area.
  • Abnormalities at the hip joint contributing to low back pain include flexion deformities, osteoarthritis, developmental dysplasia, and limited hip range of movement.
  • The bony overgrowth of a cam impingement produces shear forces resulting in...
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Clinical Conversation: Integrating Objective Assessment Tools (December 2021)


This transcript includes highlights from the live, interactive session of our Clinical Conversation: Integrating Objective Assessment Tools. 

If you missed the live webinar, you can read about how to integrate objective assessment tools in your clinical Pilates practice below. 

Please join our next live event, where you can participate in our Case Study discussion and Q&A session. 

Check out our upcoming Clinical Conversations here



  • In the same way that we use objective assessment tools in other facets of clinical practice, we want to integrate these into our clinical Pilates sessions to:
    • Collect baseline data.
    • Assess current status.
    • Determine treatment planning.
    • Monitor changes over time.
    • Track client progress.
    • Be able to communicate with other healthcare practitioners.



  • Goniometry: AROM...
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Clinical Pilates in Practice: Visuomotor Adaptation & Passive Movement (December 2021)


This study examined the lasting effect of passive training on visuomotor adaptation within a 24-hour timeline.


G. Tays et al. Consolidation of use-dependent motor memories induced by passive movement training. Neuroscience Letters 732 (2020) 135080.



  • Adapting to a sensorimotor environment requires complex and dynamic systems that can adjust to the environment within minutes, resulting in long-term performance changes.
  • Adaptation is driven by two primary learning mechanisms:
    • Error-based, model-based, or algorithmic learning; and
    • Use-dependent, model-free, or instant-reliant training.
  • Use-dependent learning occurs both during active and passive movements.
  • Passive movement training has the capacity to facilitate subsequent visuomotor adaptation.
    • Results showed improvement after one-hour and 24-hour delay conditions.

Use-dependent learning alongside passive movement training enhances the...

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Clinical Pilates in Practice: Hernia Repair Outcomes (November 2021)


This article is a comprehensive retrospective review of ventral hernia repair outcomes performed at one facility in the USA. The study was limited by a small sample size, facility treatment bias, retrospective review, and loss of information due to data extraction from paper charts; these are all acknowledged by the authors of the paper.


Kadakia N, Mudgway R, Vo J, et al. (August 02, 2020) Long-Term Outcomes of Ventral Hernia Repair: An 11-Year Follow-Up. Cureus 12(8): e9523. DOI 10.7759/cureus.9523



  • Ventral hernia repairs (VHR) may be performed through open or laparoscopic techniques, and with or without mesh.
  • Complication rates may be affected by various factors such as mesh placement and mesh position technique.
  • Mesh use is associated with a lower risk for recurrence and a higher risk of infections.
  • Laparoscopic repairs are associated with decreased quality of life, length of stay, and infection rates.
  • VHRs...
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Clinical Pilates in Practice: Learning to Explore (September 2021)


This review focuses on the contributions made by exploratory behaviors to skilled perception and action. 


Hacques, Guillaume et al. “Exploring to learn and learning to explore.” Psychological research, 10.1007/s00426-020-01352-x. 10 May. 2020, doi:10.1007/s00426-020-01352-x



  • Exploratory activities are those that generate information about the association between environmental factors and action capabilities.
  • Exploration describes the active process by which individuals disclose information during control of action.
  • In ecological psychology, information resides as patterns in ambient arrays (mechanical, acoustic, and optical).
    • These ambient arrays specify the relationship between the individual and his/her environment.
  • When information is relevant to the relationship between an individual and their environment, they perceive opportunities for action.
  • Through exploratory-perpetual motor...
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Clinical Pilates in Practice: Biomechanics & The Formation of Nervous Tissue (August 2021)


This review is a critical assessment of recent advances in the utilization of mechanical stimuli towards exploiting nervous tissue growth and formation. The authors discuss current in vitro systems designed to restate the mechanical environment of developing neural tissues, and the advancements made in integrating these systems into the clinical setting.


Pfister, Bryan J., Jonathan M. Grasman, and Joseph R. Loverde. "Exploiting biomechanics to direct the formation of nervous tissue." Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering 14 (2020), 59-66. doi:10.1016/j.cobme.2020.05.009.



  • Mechanics can be used to guide and accelerate neuronal expansion.
  • The central nervous system plays a key role in initiating the autonomic functions and coordinated actions of every being.
  • The peripheral nervous system coordinates signal transmission between the central nervous systems...
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