Clinical Conversation: Working With Scoliosis (June 2022)

This transcript includes highlights from the live, interactive session of our Clinical Conversation: Working With Scoliosis. 

If you missed the live webinar, you can read about how to use clinical Pilates to work with scoliosis below. 

Please join our next live event, where you can participate in our Case Study discussion and Q&A session. 

Check out our upcoming Clinical Conversations here



  • Scoliosis is a side to side, three dimensional curve of the spine, involving curves in the sagittal, coronal, and transverse planes.
  • In addition to the spinal curves, scoliosis also presents with a concave and  convex hemithorax.
  •  Despite the fact that scoliosis exists in three dimensions, it is defined an measured by curves in the coronal plane.
    • for a diagnosis of Scoliosis, a patient needs to have a Cobb angle of more than ten degrees.
  • Scoliosis affects the...
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Clinical Pilates in Practice: Knee Joint Biomechanics in Transtibial Amputees (May 2022)

This study looked at knee joint biomechanics in a young, healthy population with no activity restrictions, with a focus on energy storage and return (ESAR)  prostheses. The authors recognise that the study had a small sample size, and discuss potential sources of error for their data collection, but are confident about the clinical application of their findings.


Orekhov G, Robinson AM, Hazelwood SJ, Klisch SM (2019) Knee joint biomechanics in transtibial amputees in gait, cycling, and elliptical training. PLoS ONE 14(12): e0226060.



  • There is a high prevalence of joint pain and osteoarthritis (OA) in unilateral transtibial and transfemoral amputee populations.
  • Transtibial amputees are more likely to develop OA in the intact knee.


Abnormal gait biomechanics include asymmetric ground reaction forces, muscle activation patterns, and knee joint kinetics between limbs.


  • ...
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Clinical Pilates in Practice: Migraines (April 2022)

This Masterclass / review article discusses current literature and clinical practice for physiotherapists working with patients with migraines.

Carvalho, Gabriela F., Annika Schwarz, Tibor M. Szikszay, Waclaw M. Adamczyk, Débora Bevilaqua-Grossi, and Kerstin Luedtke. "Physical therapy and migraine: musculoskeletal and balance dysfunctions and their relevance for clinical practice." Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy 24, no. 4 (2020), 306-317. doi:10.1016/j.bjpt.2019.11.001.


  • Migraines are under-diagnosed and under-treated.

  •  Patients may present with episodic, highly frequent, or chronic migraines.

  • Neck pain is common as part of the migraine cycle, and is related to worse clinical presentations.

  • Most patients present with at least three of the following:

    • Increased prevalence of cervical trigger points.
    • Decreased cervical ROM.
    • Decreased cervical flexion and extension strength.
    • Decreased upper cervical...
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Clinical Conversation: Ehlers Danlos Syndromes (February 2022)


This transcript includes highlights from the live, interactive session of our Clinical Conversation: Ehlers Danlos Syndromes. 

If you missed the live webinar, you can read about Ehlers Danlos syndromes and clinical Pilates below. 

Please join our next live event, where you can participate in our Case Study discussion and Q&A session. 

Check out our upcoming Clinical Conversations here



  • Ehlers Danlos syndromes are a group of genetic connective tissue disorders that affect many body systems, and which share several clinical features.
    • Soft, extensible skin.
    • Hypermobile joints.
    • Abnormal wound healing.
    • Easy bruising.
  • Hypermobility spectrum disorders.
    • Symptoms of hypermobile joints +/- skin hyperextensibility.
    • Joint and muscle fatigue and pain may or may not be present.
    • No other diagnostic criteria for EDS.


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Research Review: Ankylosing Spondylitis Pathogenesis (October 2021)


The authors of this article reviewed data from animals and genetic studies highlighting the importance of Type 17 immune responses. The article comprehensively discusses the multifactorial pathogenesis of ankylosing spondylitis.


Aniruddha V. and Paul B. New developments in our understanding of ankylosing spondylitis pathogenesis. 2020. Immunology, 161, 94–102.



  • Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is an autoimmune inflammatory arthritis that is part of a larger class of spondyloarthropathies.
  • Complications of AS include iritis, an increased risk of osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, and a high risk of spinal compression fractures.
  • Physiotherapy is the mainstay of treatment for AS along with pain management with analgesia and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.


  • The risk of siblings or first-degree relatives of AS patients having AS is higher than that of the general population, and there is a high...
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