Clinical Pilates in Practice: Motor Learning & Gait (September2022)

This research was designed to validate a simple, low-cost push-off retraining protocol in healthy participants based on task-specific training that could be implemented during overground walking in the clinic. 

Bertrand-Charette M, Nielsen JB, Bouyer LJ (2021) A simple, clinically applicable motor learning protocol to increase push-off during gait: A proof-of-concept. PLoS ONE 16(1): e0245523.

KEY POINTS: MOTOR LEARNING & GAIT

  • Gait control is often compromised after neural injury.
  • Error-based motor learning protocols can improve overall walking ability in neurologically impaired populations.
  • Experimentally-controlled error-based motor learning is a potential protocol for training motor recovery after injury.

Reduced push-off force is a prevalent gait impairment, which correlates to a reduced gait speed and limits mobility and activities of daily living.

  • Applying controlled perturbations during gait in the laboratory setting can induce error-based...
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Clinical Pilates in Practice: Prediction of Motor Learning (February 2022)

The authors of this paper used an ethological approach to test the hypothesis that practice-related refinements of multiple behavioural features would be independently predictive of motor learning.

 

Perry, Christopher M., Tarkeshwar Singh, Kayla G. Springer, Adam T. Harrison, Alexander C. McLain, and Troy M. Herter. "Multiple processes independently predict motor learning." Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation 17, no. 1 (2020). doi:10.1186/s12984-020-00766-3.

 

KEY POINTS: PREDICTION OF MOTOR LEARNING

  • Motor learning results from neural adaptations that produce refinements of behavioural features of motor tasks.
  • Motor learning can induce changes in visual processing that are associated with the refinements of skilled limb movement.
  • The interactions between skilled limb movements and visual search lead to coordinated patterns of the eyes and limbs (ie., hand-eye coordination).
  • Experts with different visuomotor...
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Clinical Pilates in Practice: Learning to Explore (September 2021)

 

This review focuses on the contributions made by exploratory behaviors to skilled perception and action. 

 

Hacques, Guillaume et al. “Exploring to learn and learning to explore.” Psychological research, 10.1007/s00426-020-01352-x. 10 May. 2020, doi:10.1007/s00426-020-01352-x

 

KEY POINTS: LEARNING TO EXPLORE

  • Exploratory activities are those that generate information about the association between environmental factors and action capabilities.
  • Exploration describes the active process by which individuals disclose information during control of action.
  • In ecological psychology, information resides as patterns in ambient arrays (mechanical, acoustic, and optical).
    • These ambient arrays specify the relationship between the individual and his/her environment.
  • When information is relevant to the relationship between an individual and their environment, they perceive opportunities for action.
  • Through exploratory-perpetual motor...
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Clinical Pilates in Practice: Age & Motor Adaptation (July 2021)

 

The authors of this study examined the differences in the brain structure and cognition underlying motor adaptation in a population-based cohort. Results support the hypothesis that sensorimotor adaptation is a composite of multiple learning strategies, which are differentially affected by age, and the authors conclude that "that across the lifespan, motor adaptation declines with age as a result of the deteriorating explicit learning system".

 

Wolpe N, Ingram J, Tsvetanov K, et al. (2020). Age-related reduction in motor adaptation: brain structural correlates and the role of explicit memory. Neurobiology of Aging 90: 13-23.

 

KEY POINTS: AGE & MOTOR ADAPTATION

  • Adaptation of movement to environmental changes varies across the lifespan. 
  • Motor adaptation is related to individual differences in visuospatial working memory.
  • The degree of motor adaptation is typically reduced with age,although visuomotor adaptation...
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Clinical Pilates in Practice: Neuroplasticity & Motor Learning in Sport (May 2021)

 

This is a brief summary of neuronal plasticity and motor learning, particularly as it pertains to physical activity.

 

Minino, Roberta, Patrizia Belfiore, Marianna Liparoti (2020): Neuroplasticity and motor learning in sport activity, Journal of Physical Education and Sport; DOI: 10.7752/jpes.2020.s4318.

 

 KEY POINTS: NEUROPLASTICITY & MOTOR LEARNING IN SPORT

  • Motor learning is defined as the ability to acquire new motor actions or new movement patterns.
  • Cortical reorganization can be used for motor learning; the process follows a path consisting of two phases: unmasking and strengthening preexisting conditions, and creating new connections.
  • In motor learning, the transition from coarse movement to a precise execution has three phases:
    • Cognitive phase: Understanding the purpose of the action to be acquired and how to perform it.
    • Associative phase: Structuring movements and finalizing the motor sequence.
    • Automation phase: Automation of motor...
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Clinical Pilates in Practice: Choice & Skill Learning (January 2021)

 

This small study observed the motor learning effects of allowing small choices by individuals.

 

An, Jongseong, Rebecca Lewthwaite, Seungmin Lee, and Gabriele Wulf. "Choice of practice-task order enhances golf skill learning." Psychology of Sport and Exercise 50 (2020), 101737. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2020.101737.

 

KEY POINTS: CHOICE OF PRACTICE ORDER & SKILL LEARNING

  • Autonomy is a key motivational factor in the OPTIMAL theory of motor learning.1
    • Enhances expectancies for performance.
    • Increases task focus.
    • Enhanced processing of task errors.
    • Greater neuro-cognitive engagement.
  • Lack of autonomy can be stressful and therefore negatively impact performance.
    • Stress also takes focus away from task performance.
  • In the "choice group", participants selected the order of their practice, which were seemingly small choices.
  • Having a choice enhanced learning, compared to the group that did not choose the order of their practice.
  • Positive...
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Research Roundup: December 2020

 

Interested in keeping up to date with research relevant to your clinical practice?

The Calibrate Pilates team rounds this up so that you can integrate new information into your evidence-informed practice: join our newsletter now.

 

Multiple Processes Independently Predict Motor Learning

Perry et al. J Neuro Engineering Rehabil (2020) 17:151 https://doi.org/10.1186/s12984-020-00766-3. 

The authors of this paper used an ethological approach to test the hypothesis that practice-related refinements of multiple behavioural features would be independently predictive of motor learning.

 

Key Points

  • Motor learning results from neural adaptations that produce refinements of behavioural features of motor tasks.

  • Motor learning can induce changes in visual processing that are associated with the refinements of skilled limb movement.
  • The interactions between skilled limb movements and visual search lead to coordinated patterns of the eyes and limbs (ie., hand-eye...
Continue Reading...

Research Roundup: November 2020

 

Interested in keeping up to date with research relevant to your clinical practice?

The Calibrate Pilates team rounds this up so that you can integrate new information into your evidence-informed practice: join our newsletter now.

 

Locomotion and Dynamic Posture: Neuro-evolutionary Basis of Bipedal Gait

Guillaud E, et al. Locomotion and dynamic posture: neuro-evolutionary basis of bipedal gait. Neurophysiologie Clinique/Clinical Neurophysiology (2020),  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neucli.2020.10.012

This review article explains the networks that the trunk in vertebrates with limbs, and also how the central nervous system acts dynamically on the musculoskeletal system.

 

Key Points

  • Dynamic control of gait is supported by:
    • Locomotor activity that is produced by specialized rhythmogenic spinal circuits called central pattern generators (CPGs), and which cyclically drive axial and leg muscle activity (p.8)
    • Posture control systems which involve long...
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Clinical Pilates in Practice: Analogies Speed Up Motor Learning (November 2020)

 

For motor learning tasks, analogies are usually given as a single biomechanical metaphor. This study demonstrates how analogies can influence motor kinematics and task outcome.

 

Zacks O, Friedman J. Analogies can speed up the motor learning process. Sci Rep. 2020 Apr 24;10(1):6932. doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-63999-1. PMID: 32332826; PMCID: PMC7181737.

 

KEY POINTS: ANALOGIES & MOTOR LEARNING

  • The type of instruction given is important for motor learning.
  • Different aspects of movement are affected differently by different instructional styles.

"Analogies in the case of motor learning combine various task-relevant rules into a single biomechanical metaphor, usually given to the learner as a verbal instruction."

  • Explicit instructions lead to smoother training for movement.
  • Instructions given as a verbal analogy can support smoother movement training when movement tasks are slowed down.
  • Analogies may help for motor skills that are otherwise hard...
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Research Roundup: September 2020

 

Interested in keeping up to date with research relevant to your clinical practice?

The Calibrate Pilates team rounds this up so that you can integrate new information into your evidence-informed practice: join our newsletter now.

 

Current trends in the biokinetic analysis of the foot and ankle

Metsavaht L, Leporace G. Current trends for the biokinetic analysis of the foot and ankle. J Foot Ankle. 2020;14(2):191-6.

This literature review argues that clinically we need to observe functional - rather than conventional - biomechanics at the ankle and foot. Functional biomechanics observes that all segments in a joint can be simultaneously mobile. The authors suggest that "the reader should be able to understand how the 3-dimensional biokinetic analysis of the ankle and foot can contribute along with imaging examinations to the clinical setting, thus allowing the construction of a more complete proļ¬le of the patient."

 

Key Points

  • The central...
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