Research Roundup: May 2021

 

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Age-Related Reduction in Motor Adaptation

Wolpe N, Ingram J, Tsvetanov K, et al. (2020). Age-related reduction in motor adaptation: brain structural correlates and the role of explicit memory. Neurobiology of Aging 90: 13-23.

The authors of this study examined the differences in the brain structure and cognition underlying motor adaptation in a population-based cohort. Results support the hypothesis that sensorimotor adaptation is a composite of multiple learning strategies, which are differentially affected by age, and the authors conclude that "that across the lifespan, motor adaptation declines with age as a result of the deteriorating explicit learning system".

 

Key Points: Motor Adaptation and Age Related Changes
  • ...
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Research Roundup: March 2021

 

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Effects of Daily Hand Activities on Age-Related Declines of Dynamic Motor Function in Individual Fingers

Aoki T, and Kadota K. Effects of Daily Hand Activities on Age-Related Declines of Dynamic Motor Function in Individual Fingers. Motor Control (Ahead of Print). https://doi.org/10.1123/mc.2020-0085

This small study compared the dynamic and static motor capacities of each finger among elderly individuals who engaged in hobbies that involved daily use of the hands, and those that did not.

 

Key Points
  • Aging is characterized by a decline in manual dexterity, and may be quantified by decreased grip force, decreased tapping frequency, and prolonged timing for the pegboard test.
  • Reports from static motor function...
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Research Roundup: January 2021

 

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Brachial Plexus Injury After Shoulder Dislocation: A Literature Review

Olga G et al. Brachial Plexus Injury After Shoulder Dislocation: a literature review. Neurosurgical Review (2020) 43:407–423. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10143-018-1001-x

This literature review examined the neurological implications of shoulder dislocation. The authors analyzed the implications of brachial plexus injury, the incidence of neurological injuries in patients with shoulder dislocation, and proposed the algorithm for management.

 

Key Points
  • Traumatic anterior shoulder dislocation has an incidence estimated of 2% across the population.
  • 4-55% incidence of neurological complications after dislocations is reported in the literature.
  • Neurological...
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Research Roundup: October 2020

 

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Migraine: Musculoskeletal and Balance Dysfunction

Carvalho, Gabriela F., Annika Schwarz, Tibor M. Szikszay, Waclaw M. Adamczyk, Débora Bevilaqua-Grossi, and Kerstin Luedtke. "Physical therapy and migraine: musculoskeletal and balance dysfunctions and their relevance for clinical practice." Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy 24, no. 4 (2020), 306-317. doi:10.1016/j.bjpt.2019.11.001.

This Masterclass / review article discusses current literature and clinical practice for physiotherapists working with patients with migraines.

 

Key Points
  • Migraines are under-diagnosed and under-treated.

  • Patients may present with episodic, highly frequent, or chronic migraines.
  • Neck pain is common as part of...

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Research Roundup: September 2020

 

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Current trends in the biokinetic analysis of the foot and ankle

Metsavaht L, Leporace G. Current trends for the biokinetic analysis of the foot and ankle. J Foot Ankle. 2020;14(2):191-6.

This literature review argues that clinically we need to observe functional - rather than conventional - biomechanics at the ankle and foot. Functional biomechanics observes that all segments in a joint can be simultaneously mobile. The authors suggest that "the reader should be able to understand how the 3-dimensional biokinetic analysis of the ankle and foot can contribute along with imaging examinations to the clinical setting, thus allowing the construction of a more complete proļ¬le of the patient."

 

Key Points
  • The central...
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Clinical Pilates in Practice: Neurodyamics

 

Integrating neural mobility exercises into functional movements and clinical Pilates practice can have multiple benefits, regardless of whether a client is displaying neural mechanosensitivity: all tissues in the body need to move!

 

Key Points: Neurodynamics
  • Mechanical and physiological events within the nervous system are dynamically interdependent.
  • Neurodynamics (ND) is the term used to describe the integration of the morphology,
    biomechanics, and physiology of the nervous system." 10
  • In neurodynamics, posture and multi-joint movements are combined to apply force to a nerve.
  • Mobilisation triggers a range of responses in nervous tissues, including tension and pressure changes, and positive impacts on nervous impulses, axonal transport, viscoelasticity, microcirculation, and abnormal impulse-generating sites.
  • Theoretically, neural mobilisation restores homeostasis in and around the nerve, dispersing intraneural oedema in the nerve root and axon, thereby decreasing...
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Research Roundup: August 2020

 

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Diaphragmatic Breathing for Posture

Menon, Vivek V., Mudasir R. Baba, Pavankumar, and Sneha Suresh. "Effects of Diaphragmatic Training on Posture and Stability in Asymptomatic Subjects: A Randomized Clinical Trial." Indian Journal of Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy 14, no. 2 (April-June 2020), 221-225.

By no means a thorough or robust study, we are including this one because of our belief in evidence-informed practice, and this paper does serve as a reminder of the importance of the diaphragm for postural control. (Better references included below.)

 

Anatomical Review: The Diaphragm
  • The throacic diaphragm separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities.
  • Comprised of central and peripheral parts, that...
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Clinical Pilates in Practice: Rheumatoid Arthritis

 

Guidelines for managing rheumatoid arthritis consistently recommend exercise to support and maintain joint function. In practice, however, when working with people in chronic pain or during an acute flare of the condition, this may not be such an easy task. This is especially true when there may be fears around pain and dysfunction.

 

Key Points: Pathophysiology of rheumatoid arthritis
  • Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an immune mediated inflammatory disease: immunological activation + inflammatory pathways contribute to an auto-perpetuating process.
  • RA primarily presents as symmetrical polyarthritis, with patients dealing with painful joints, restricted mobility, and fatigue.
  • 3 phases of disease: initiation phase, amplification phase, chronic inflammatory phase.
  • TNF, IL-1, and IL-6 are the prominent inflammatory cytokines that mediate the disease response in RA.

Pathobiology of Rheumatoid Arthritis - Smolen et al. (2016)

  • In RA, the...
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Research Roundup: July 2020

 

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Footwear Alters Lower Extremity Coordination Variability

Romer, Braden H., Wendi Weimar, and John Fox. "Footwear Alters Lower Extremity Coordination Variability." Perceptual and Motor Skills 126, no. 5 (2019), 764-778. doi:10.1177/0031512519863183.

This was a small study gauging the influence of footwear on motor coordination, and thus results are not transferable across populations. However, the findings are interesting from a clinical perspective, as this adds to information re: training for functional tasks with appropriate footwear.

 

Key Points
  • Footwear, footwear components, and tactile feedback are capable of producing significant changes in gait mechanics and lower extremity muscle activity.
  • The amplitude and...
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Research Roundup: March 2020

 

Interested in keeping up to date with research relevant to your clinical practice?

The Calibrate Pilates team rounds this up so that you can integrate new information into your evidence-informed practice: join our newsletter now.

 

Knee Joint Biomechanics in Transtibial Amputees in Gait, Cycling, and Elliptical Training

Orekhov G, Robinson AM, Hazelwood SJ, Klisch SM (2019) Knee joint biomechanics in transtibial amputees in gait, cycling, and elliptical training. PLoS ONE 14(12): e0226060.

This study looked at knee joint biomechanics in a young, healthy population with no activity restrictions, with a focus on energy storage and return (ESAR)  prostheses. The authors recognise that the study had a small sample size, and discuss potential sources of error for their data collection, but are confident about the clinical application of their findings.

 

 Key Points
  • There is a high prevalence of joint pain and osteoarthritis (OA) in...
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