Clinical Pilates in Practice: Biomechanics & The Formation of Nervous Tissue (August 2021)

This review is a critical assessment of recent advances in the utilization of mechanical stimuli towards exploiting nervous tissue growth and formation. The authors discuss current in vitro systems designed to restate the mechanical environment of developing neural tissues, and the advancements made in integrating these systems into the clinical setting.

 

Pfister, Bryan J., Jonathan M. Grasman, and Joseph R. Loverde. "Exploiting biomechanics to direct the formation of nervous tissue." Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering 14 (2020), 59-66. doi:10.1016/j.cobme.2020.05.009.

 

KEY POINTS: BIOMECHANICS & THE FORMATION OF NERVOUS TISSUE

  • Mechanics can be used to guide and accelerate neuronal expansion.
  • The central nervous system plays a key role in initiating the autonomic functions and coordinated actions of every being.
  • The peripheral nervous system coordinates signal transmission between the central nervous systems and the...
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Clinical Pilates in Practice: Shoulder Kinematics & Subacromial Impingement (June 2021)

This literature review examines the relationship between shoulder kinematics and the aetiology of rotator cuff pathology.

 

Lawrence, Rebekah L., Jonathan P. Braman, and Paula M. Ludewig. "Shoulder kinematics impact subacromial proximities: a review of the literature." Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy 24, no. 3 (2020), 219-230. doi:10.1016/j.bjpt.2019.07.009.

 

KEY POINTS: SHOULDER KINEMATICS & SUBACROMIAL IMPINGEMENT

  • Subacromial compression is unlikely a contributing factor to rotator cuff pathologies.
  • There are limitations to 2D measurements when trying to quantify 3D relationships.
  • 3D techniques are not as broadly available.
  • There are extreme variations in metrics for quantifying the subacromial space.
    • The most common metric is the minimum distance; it quantifies the smallest distance between two structures.
  • A ‘‘painful arc’’ of motion between 700 and 1200 humerothoracic elevation is...
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Clinical Pilates in Practice: Is T9-T12 the Thoracolumbar Transition Zone? (April 2021)

The authors of this retrospective review study hypothesised that the true thoracolumbar junction is T10-11.

 

Murphy, J. et al. “Is T9-11 the true thoracolumbar transition zone?” Journal of clinical orthopaedics and trauma 11 5 (2020): 891-895.

 

KEY POINTS

  • For clinical purposes, the thoracolumbar transition zone is considered to be T11-L2 for due to the variation in the location of the caudal end of the cord, as well as the biomechanical weakness of false ribs at T11.

The point of transition from floating to false ribs resulting in increased mobility at T10-11.

  • Articulation between thoracic vertebrae and ribs plays an active role in stability and load-bearing of the thoracic spine, along with the ligaments and facet joint capsules.
  • The lumbar spine is relatively more mobile. 
  • Mean age in the patient cohort was 25.3 years; 300 MRIs were reviewed.
  • Disc degeneration was most frequent and most severe at T8-9 and T9-10, followed by T10-11.
  • ...
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Clinical Pilates in Practice: Biokinetic Analysis of the Foot & Ankle (February 2021)

This literature review argues that clinically we need to observe functional - rather than conventional - biomechanics at the ankle and foot. Functional biomechanics observes that all segments in a joint can be simultaneously mobile. The authors suggest that:

 "The reader should be able to understand how the 3-dimensional biokinetic analysis of the ankle and foot can contribute along with imaging examinations to the clinical setting, thus allowing the construction of a more complete profile of the patient."

 

Metsavaht L, Leporace G. Current trends for the biokinetic analysis of the foot and ankle. J Foot Ankle. 2020;14(2):191-6.

 

KEY POINTS: BIOKINETIC ANALYSIS OF THE FOOT & ANKLE

  • The central nervous system works as the generator of complex movement patterns based on muscular synergies; the control of active joint stability is coordinated by the neuromuscular system and not by isolated muscle strength or range of motion.
  • Functional ankle...
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Research Roundup: December 2020

 

Interested in keeping up to date with research relevant to your clinical practice?

The Calibrate Pilates team rounds this up so that you can integrate new information into your evidence-informed practice: join our newsletter now.

 

Multiple Processes Independently Predict Motor Learning

Perry et al. J Neuro Engineering Rehabil (2020) 17:151 https://doi.org/10.1186/s12984-020-00766-3. 

The authors of this paper used an ethological approach to test the hypothesis that practice-related refinements of multiple behavioural features would be independently predictive of motor learning.

 

Key Points

  • Motor learning results from neural adaptations that produce refinements of behavioural features of motor tasks.

  • Motor learning can induce changes in visual processing that are associated with the refinements of skilled limb movement.
  • The interactions between skilled limb movements and visual search lead to coordinated patterns of the eyes and limbs (ie., hand-eye...
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Clinical Pilates in Practice: Pelvic Floor Muscle Training for Stress Urinary Incontinence (December 2020)

"The aims of the present systematic review and meta-analysis were:

  1. To analyze the effectiveness of pelvic floor muscle exercises ... in women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI), and
  2. To determine which pelvic floor muscle training characteristics (length of the program, frequency, duration, exercises) produced the greatest adaptations for decreasing urine loss."

 

García-Sánchez E, Ávila-Gandía V, López-Román J, Martínez-Rodríguez A, Rubio-Arias JÁ. What Pelvic Floor Muscle Training Load is Optimal in Minimizing Urine Loss in Women with Stress Urinary Incontinence? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 Nov 8;16(22):4358. doi: 10.3390/ijerph16224358. PMID: 31717291; PMCID: PMC6887794

 

KEY POINTS: PELVIC FLOOR MUSCLE TRAINING FOR STRESS URINARY INCONTINENCE

  • 10% of the female population experience stress urinary incontinence (UI)...
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Research Roundup: November 2020

 

Interested in keeping up to date with research relevant to your clinical practice?

The Calibrate Pilates team rounds this up so that you can integrate new information into your evidence-informed practice: join our newsletter now.

 

Locomotion and Dynamic Posture: Neuro-evolutionary Basis of Bipedal Gait

Guillaud E, et al. Locomotion and dynamic posture: neuro-evolutionary basis of bipedal gait. Neurophysiologie Clinique/Clinical Neurophysiology (2020),  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neucli.2020.10.012

This review article explains the networks that the trunk in vertebrates with limbs, and also how the central nervous system acts dynamically on the musculoskeletal system.

 

Key Points

  • Dynamic control of gait is supported by:
    • Locomotor activity that is produced by specialized rhythmogenic spinal circuits called central pattern generators (CPGs), and which cyclically drive axial and leg muscle activity (p.8)
    • Posture control systems which involve long...
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Research Roundup: October 2020

 

Interested in keeping up to date with research relevant to your clinical practice?

The Calibrate Pilates team rounds this up so that you can integrate new information into your evidence-informed practice: join our newsletter now.

 

Migraine: Musculoskeletal and Balance Dysfunction

Carvalho, Gabriela F., Annika Schwarz, Tibor M. Szikszay, Waclaw M. Adamczyk, Débora Bevilaqua-Grossi, and Kerstin Luedtke. "Physical therapy and migraine: musculoskeletal and balance dysfunctions and their relevance for clinical practice." Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy 24, no. 4 (2020), 306-317. doi:10.1016/j.bjpt.2019.11.001.

This Masterclass / review article discusses current literature and clinical practice for physiotherapists working with patients with migraines.

 

Key Points

  • Migraines are under-diagnosed and under-treated.

  • Patients may present with episodic, highly frequent, or chronic migraines.
  • Neck pain is common as part of...

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Anatomy Review: Iliocapsularis & Other Muscles of the Hip Capsule (October 2020)

An informal poll of our colleagues has concluded that no-one knew that the iliocapsularis muscle existed until two days ago… This got us thinking about other muscles of the hip that insert into the joint capsule, and their role in hip function and movement dysfunction.

 

ANATOMY REVIEW: ILIOCAPSULARIS

  • The iliocapsularis is a constant muscle. ie., found in all human specimens!
  • Origin = Inferior border of the anterior inferior iliac spine + antereomedial joint capsule.
  • Insertion = Distal to the lesser trochanter.
  • Runs anterolaterally to posteromedially.
  • Lies under rectus femoris and lateral to iliacus (sometimes blends with iliacus).
  • Contraction pulls the hip joint capsule zona orbicularis superomedially -> stabilizing the hip anteriorly.
  • Hypertrophy of the iliocapsularis is seen in patients with hip dysplasia, particularly helping to stabilize the femoral head when there is a deficient acetabulum.

Iliocapsularis limits synovial impingement between the...

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Research Roundup: September 2020

 

Interested in keeping up to date with research relevant to your clinical practice?

The Calibrate Pilates team rounds this up so that you can integrate new information into your evidence-informed practice: join our newsletter now.

 

Current trends in the biokinetic analysis of the foot and ankle

Metsavaht L, Leporace G. Current trends for the biokinetic analysis of the foot and ankle. J Foot Ankle. 2020;14(2):191-6.

This literature review argues that clinically we need to observe functional - rather than conventional - biomechanics at the ankle and foot. Functional biomechanics observes that all segments in a joint can be simultaneously mobile. The authors suggest that "the reader should be able to understand how the 3-dimensional biokinetic analysis of the ankle and foot can contribute along with imaging examinations to the clinical setting, thus allowing the construction of a more complete profile of the patient."

 

Key Points

  • The central...
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