Clinical Pilates in Practice: Motor Learning & Gait (September 2022)

This research was designed to validate a simple, low-cost push-off retraining protocol in healthy participants based on task-specific training that could be implemented during overground walking in the clinic. 


Bertrand-Charette M, Nielsen JB, Bouyer LJ (2021) A simple, clinically applicable motor learning protocol to increase push-off during gait: A proof-of-concept. PLoS ONE 16(1): e0245523.



  • Gait control is often compromised after neural injury.
  • Error-based motor learning protocols can improve overall walking ability in neurologically impaired populations.
  • Experimentally-controlled error-based motor learning is a potential protocol for training motor recovery after injury.

Reduced push-off force is a prevalent gait impairment, which correlates to a reduced gait speed and limits mobility and activities of daily living.

  • Applying controlled perturbations during gait in the laboratory setting can induce...
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Clinical Pilates in Practice: FAI Morphology & Adolescent Spine Patients (August 2022)

This study compared spinopelvic parameters in asymptomatic scoliosis and asymptomatic patients with radiographic evidence of femoroacetabular impingement.


Nabi, Vugar, Halil Demirkiran, Bulent Atilla, Mazhar Tokgozoglu, and Omur Caglar. "The prevalence of radiographic femoroacetabular impingement morphology in adolescent spine patients." Medicine Science | International Medical Journal 10, no. 2 (2021), 524. doi:10.5455/medscience.2021.04.108



  • There is a significant association between between spinal deformity and the presence of femoroacetabular impingement morphology. 

There was no relationship between femoroacetabular impingement morphology and spinopelvic parameters.

  • Abnormal morphology or biomechanics in the pelvis or spine inherently affect each other by way of the lumbosacral junction.
  • Changes in spinal alignment alter hip biomechanics and may also predispose an...
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Clinical Pilates in Practice: Hand Dexterity & Motor Function (July 2022)

This small study compared the dynamic and static motor capacities of each finger among elderly individuals who engaged in hobbies that involved daily use of the hands, and those that did not.


Aoki T, and Kadota K. Effects of Daily Hand Activities on Age-Related Declines of Dynamic Motor Function in Individual Fingers. Motor Control (Ahead of Print).



  • Aging is characterized by a decline in manual dexterity, and may be quantified by decreased grip force, decreased tapping frequency, and prolonged timing for the pegboard test.
  • Reports from static motor function studies on individual fingers show that the lower maximum pinch force in older adults is greatly reduced, compared with young adults.1
    • Pinch force is a precision grip whereby an object is pinched in three ways: lateral pinch, three-point pinch, and two-point pinch.
  • ...
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Clinical Conversation: Alternate Grips for Upper Limb Rehab (June 2022)

This transcript includes highlights from the live, interactive session of our Clinical Conversation: Alternate Grips for Upper Limb Rehab. 

If you missed the live webinar, you can read about using alternate grips for upper limb rehab in your clinical Pilates practice, below. 

Please join our next live event, where you can participate in our Case Study discussion and Q&A session. 

Check out our upcoming Clinical Conversations here



  • Grip and Grasp Anatomy: The carpals.
    • The carpus is designed to increase the tension in the tendons of the fingers (both extensors and flexors) and optimise these movements.
    • The proximal row are functionally separate from the distal row.
    • Flexion of the wrist initially occurs between these two rows, with the scaphoid acting as a bridge, so that in the final stage of flexion the whole carpus moves as a single unit.
    • The same occurs in...
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Clinical Conversation: Working With Scoliosis (June 2022)

This transcript includes highlights from the live, interactive session of our Clinical Conversation: Working With Scoliosis. 

If you missed the live webinar, you can read about how to use clinical Pilates to work with scoliosis below. 

Please join our next live event, where you can participate in our Case Study discussion and Q&A session. 

Check out our upcoming Clinical Conversations here



  • Scoliosis is a side to side, three dimensional curve of the spine, involving curves in the sagittal, coronal, and transverse planes.
  • In addition to the spinal curves, scoliosis also presents with a concave and  convex hemithorax.
  •  Despite the fact that scoliosis exists in three dimensions, it is defined an measured by curves in the coronal plane.
    • for a diagnosis of Scoliosis, a patient needs to have a Cobb angle of more than ten degrees.
  • Scoliosis affects the...
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Clinical Pilates in Practice: Locomotion & Dynamic Posture (June 2022)

This review article explains the networks that the trunk in vertebrates with limbs, and also how the central nervous system acts dynamically on the musculoskeletal system.


Guillaud E, et al. Locomotion and dynamic posture: neuro-evolutionary basis of bipedal gait. Neurophysiologie Clinique/Clinical Neurophysiology (2020),



  • Dynamic control of gait is supported by:
    • Locomotor activity that is produced by specialized rhythmogenic spinal circuits called central pattern generators (CPGs), and which cyclically drive axial and leg muscle activity (p.8)
    • Posture control systems which involve long spinal/supraspinal loops, and the integration of various sensory inputs (e.g. proprioceptive, visual and vestibular) at various supraspinal levels resulting in long latency responses (p.8).

  • Dynamic balance in limbed vertebrates requires proper coordination of all...
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Clinical Pilates in Practice: Knee Joint Biomechanics in Transtibial Amputees (May 2022)

This study looked at knee joint biomechanics in a young, healthy population with no activity restrictions, with a focus on energy storage and return (ESAR)  prostheses. The authors recognise that the study had a small sample size, and discuss potential sources of error for their data collection, but are confident about the clinical application of their findings.


Orekhov G, Robinson AM, Hazelwood SJ, Klisch SM (2019) Knee joint biomechanics in transtibial amputees in gait, cycling, and elliptical training. PLoS ONE 14(12): e0226060.



  • There is a high prevalence of joint pain and osteoarthritis (OA) in unilateral transtibial and transfemoral amputee populations.
  • Transtibial amputees are more likely to develop OA in the intact knee.


Abnormal gait biomechanics include asymmetric ground reaction forces, muscle activation patterns, and knee joint kinetics between limbs.


  • ...
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Clinical Pilates in Practice: Migraines (April 2022)

This Masterclass / review article discusses current literature and clinical practice for physiotherapists working with patients with migraines.

Carvalho, Gabriela F., Annika Schwarz, Tibor M. Szikszay, Waclaw M. Adamczyk, Débora Bevilaqua-Grossi, and Kerstin Luedtke. "Physical therapy and migraine: musculoskeletal and balance dysfunctions and their relevance for clinical practice." Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy 24, no. 4 (2020), 306-317. doi:10.1016/j.bjpt.2019.11.001.


  • Migraines are under-diagnosed and under-treated.

  •  Patients may present with episodic, highly frequent, or chronic migraines.

  • Neck pain is common as part of the migraine cycle, and is related to worse clinical presentations.

  • Most patients present with at least three of the following:

    • Increased prevalence of cervical trigger points.
    • Decreased cervical ROM.
    • Decreased cervical flexion and extension strength.
    • Decreased upper cervical...
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Clinical Conversation: Footwork Options for Pregnancy (March 2022)

This transcript includes highlights from the live, interactive session of our Clinical Conversation: Footwork Options for Pregnancy.

If you missed the live webinar, you can read about some of the biomechanical changes during pregnancy, as well as footwork options for your clinical Pilates practice below. 

Please join our next live event, where you can participate in our Case Study discussion and Q&A session. 

Check out our upcoming Clinical Conversations here



  •  Pilates sessions traditionally begin with footwork and other strength work to set a foundation for movement.
  • By spending time building strength through the feet, you can help to support a stable and dynamic support for standing, and for upright movement.
  • This is an incredibly functional place to begin, and it's no different when working with a pregnant body.



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Clinical Pilates in Practice: Toe Flexor Strength & Mobility (March 2022)

This study sought elucidate the influence that foot posture has on the relationship between toe flexor strength and functional performance in older adults. The authors recognise the study's limitations: the study cohort was limited to women, and did not measure body kinematics or muscle activity.


Kusagawa, Y., Kurihara, T., Imai, A., Maeo, S., Sugiyama, T., Kanehisa, H., & Isaka, T. (2020). Toe flexor strength is associated with mobility in older adults with pronated and supinated feet but not with neutral feet. Journal of foot and ankle research13(1), 55.



  • Both pronated and supinated foot postures influence rearfoot frontal plane motion, plantar pressure distribution, and muscle activity in the lower limb during gait.
  • Individuals with pronated feet require increased intrinsic muscle activity to stabilize the...
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